All you need to know about trachea transplant

Posted by on Sep 7, 2015 in trachea transplant | 0 comments

All you need to know about trachea transplant

The great breakthrough of organ transplantation makes patients believe in science and hope.

Organ transplantation is the process of surgical removal of a damaged organ and transferring another one from a donor into the patient.
The transplantation decision is made when all other treatments fail to manage the case and a medical specialist believes that the patient will benefit from the transplant organ.

Transplantation helps save lives and enables patients to fight their diseases.

Trachea transplantation! Is that possible?!

Actually several researches and medical reports were done on trachea transplantation process so as to answer the following three questions:

Is it possible?

Is it safe?

How much effective is this process?

Here, in this article we are going to help you know everything about trachea transplantation.

First of all, what is trachea? And when do patients have to replace it?

Trachea is commonly known as the ‘windpipe’. It is the main airway passage. It begins under the voice box or larynx, extends along the breastbone and branches off into two major tubes called ‘branches’ which end in the two lungs.

Trachea is a very important organ. It is the main airway passage as mentioned before and also filters the breathed air by cilia before it reaches the lungs.

Trachea expands and shrinks so as to perform its normal function during respiration process.

Patient has to think about replacing his trachea when it is damaged by an incurable disease, tumor or irreversible case.

  • Tracheal stenosis caused by certain disease or scarring or entrance of foreign bodies into the trachea may cause serious problems.
  • A soft or non- rigid (floppy) trachea caused by a birth defect, injury or scarring may also damage the trachea.
  • Unsuccessful surgery in the trachea may also cause irreversible damage.

Scientific research and clinical studies on trachea transplantation

1- Dr. Paolo Macchiarini

Dr. Paolo Macchiarani is a surgeon from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. He replaces damaged parts of airways in patients. Dr. Macchiarain also uses experimental procedures so as to help save patients’ lives. Dr. Macchiarani developed a technique to use tracheas from cadavers in addition to synthetic tracheas. He treats these tracheas by stem cells from the recipients’ bone marrow before transplantation so as to avoid the possible rejection of the transplanted trachea.

Dr. Macchiarani reported that these surgeries were successful and no complications were developed even after five months of surgery.

2- Doubts and unanswered questions

Actually the Karolinska Institute couldn’t trust Dr. Macchiarini reports because of the different findings reported by four physicians involved in the same studies.

There also were other discrepancies between the patients’ medical record and the published report by Dr. Macchiarini. For example,

  • Macchiarini said that three patients who received synthetic tracheas have minimal to no complications, while the patients’ medical records show these same patients actually suffered from serious complications.
  • Macchiarini said that synthetic trachea transplants can become a functioning airway; but this was not supported by the patients’ medical record.
  • Natural non-synthetic tracheas were reported to be successfully used and studied in pigs only. That doesn’t mean safety or suitability for human beings.
  • Dr. Pierre Delaere, head and neck surgeon from Belgium. He questioned that the published details reported that the patients didn’t need to use stents after the surgery, which is not true.
  • Macchiarini sent a letter to the Karolinska Institute telling them that the published complications’ details were shortened because the publishing editor asked him to do so.
  • Other medical experts and the four physicians at Karolinska Institute asked Dr. Macchiarini about the scientific ethics of carrying his studies out on patients without any prior trusted experiments on animals.
  • It is also reported that Dr. Macchiarini advised patients to use some drugs in a manner that was not approved by the drug manufacturer or the Swedish Medical Products Agency.
  • Unfortunately, Dr. Macchiarini decided not to answer any question about these surgeries.
  • The most interesting thing to know about patients of Dr. Macchiarini is that six of eight of them died after 3 to 31 months after transplantation surgery because of an accident, alcoholism, respiratory system failure. None of them was reported to die because of the transplanted trachea.
  • Last but not least, Dr. Macchiarini decided to continue his research at the Kuban State Medical University where he works but his clinical trial was put on hold after the death of a patient at September 2014.
  • Macchiarini said that the patient died because of bilateral acute pneumonia with heart-lung insufficiency. He also said that the patient was breathing nor and had no tracheal transplantation complications 2 weeks before death.
  • In 2014 Dr. Macchiarini reported results of using tracheas obtained from cadavers. Four of nine patients have died because of recurrence of tumors or gastro-intestinal bleeding, four patients still living but using additional trachea stents. One patient still lives normally with no stents or complications.


Dear reader, now you are not confused about tracheal transplantation.
There are scientific ethics must be followed in scientific research.

Dr. Macchiarini may be right but we shouldn’t care about his reports.
It is unethical to perform a surgery on human beings without being confirmed at first on experimental animals.


There is no sufficient date about safety or effectiveness of using tracheas from cadavers or synthetic ones for human beings.


1- Thescrutinizer

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What are the Differences Between BCAA and Glutamine

Posted by on Sep 7, 2015 in BCAA vs Glutamine | 0 comments

What are the Differences Between BCAA and Glutamine?

If you are a weightlifter and more importantly for the purpose of mass gain, then you have heard of Glutamine and Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA). While both of the products are tailored to offer the same results, they are different in their own way which is why different weight lifters and bodybuilders will prefer one over the other. Understanding such differences will ensure that you can not only get the best results from your workouts but you are also able to enhance your growth better.

What are the benefits of taking glutamine?

Since it is the more used of the two, it gets to go first. Glutamine is directly linked to the process of protein synthesis in the body. These are the building blocks of the body, and hence its involvement proves to be crucial.

The supplement is also able to speed up the healing process both after the workout and even when you suffer an injury. It can do this courtesy of its ability to maintain cell volume and hydration.

It also helps to boost the production of growth hormones that are vital in the process of muscle growth and increase in strength. Its benefits do not end there as it is also able to boost the immune system helping the reduce the risk of falling sick that could affect your workouts.

It also enhances the absorption of nutrients by repairing the intestines and the digestive system.


While the benefits that glutamine has to offer easily make it the most important amino acid that most body builders need, BCAA also has its role to play and its benefits to offer.

First, BCAA is a contingent of amino essential amino acids that are critical to the process of muscle growth. These include Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine.

Among the benefits that BCAAs have to include the fact that they promote longer anabolism periods than the catabolism phase. As a result, you get more muscle growth than a loss.

They also help to fuel the body free amino acids that are circulating. Because of this, the muscles have resources that they can quickly take up for the growth process.

With BCAAs, one has better endurance levels, and this is mainly attributed to the fact that they offer an enhanced size and energy storage for the muscle fibers.

By looking at the benefits that each of the supplements has to offer, one can be able to see the differences. However, the outstanding question is, which of these are better for muscle growth?

Considering each of the supplements have their benefits, enhance your workout with both of the supplements is highly advisable. This way, you can get all the benefits from each of the supplements. However, you should know that there are opportune times that you should take the supplements. BCAA is best taken before and after the workout while the glutamine can be taken during one of three times during the day. First, early in the morning, immediately after a work out and also before you hit the bed.

Even though there are distinct differences, they can be used in conjunction and help to bridge the gap. This way, you are able to build mass faster.

The Health Benefits of Creatine as a Supplement

Posted by on Sep 7, 2015 in Supplement | 0 comments

The Health Benefits of Creatine as a Supplement.

When it comes to performance and building muscle, there are a lot of supplements that thumb their chests about their ability to deliver. However, after different research and studies conducted by different health and fitness bodies in various countries which include Germany and the USA, only creatine has been found to have claims that can hold. No wonder over the years the supplement has been able to get a good rating and constant use by different athletes who are looking to increase their body mass or even improve their performance. Some of the benefits that such athletes have been able to enjoy from the use of creatine include;

An increase in muscle size

One of the greatest reasons as to why creatine has been quite beneficial especially among the bodybuilders is its ability to increase the size of muscle by increasing the water content of muscles which makes them larger even though it is not due to an increase in the size of the muscle fibers. However, when used over a long period of time, the supplement is able to increase the real fat free mass owing to its ability to increase strength and power and allowing you to have a higher quality training session.

Improved athletic performance

Plenty of studies have been carried out and each of them has reached the same conclusion; oral supplementation of creatine has the ability to enhance the speed and performance of an athlete considerable giving them an edge over their competition. They also get stronger even in high-intensity activity.

Increased muscle protein synthesis

With the increased ability to lift more weight or cover some extra distance, the body has to be able to increase the synthesis of proteins. This is a fete that is achieved through the oral intake of creatine especially for sporting and athletic activities. It is able to achieve this by increasing the available energy supply (ATP) to allow for more efficient muscle contraction.

Boosts brain powers

Those using creatine not only stand to benefit by being able to move faster or being stronger. A research study carried out by the University of Sydney and also the Macquarie University comprehensively came to the conclusion that creatine has the ability to improve memory as well as intelligence.

Increases strength in patients suffering from muscular dystrophy

Creatine also has medical benefits as various studies have found out. For instance, a study carried out in Germany uncovered those patients who suffered from a condition known as muscular dystrophy experienced an 8.5% increase in strength after taking creatine. Also, the use of creatine has been found to reduce the progress of Parkinson’s disease. Further studies that have been published in the Journal of Neurochemistry also reached that creatine is vital as part of a treatment that could help in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Being able to enjoy such immense benefits from one muscle supplement that have been backed up by extensive studies goes to show the quality and ability to deliver that creatine offers. It is not only beneficial to those that are actively involved in sports but also to those that might be having health problems as well.

The Differences Between Passive and Active Immunization

Posted by on Sep 7, 2015 in Passive vs Active Immunization | 0 comments

The Differences Between Passive and Active Immunization.

One of the ways that health experts have devised to help protect man from the pathogens and illnesses lurking in the surrounding is through immunization. As a baby, it was vital for one to get injections that had a life long effect and helped to safeguard against a variety of diseases through one’s lifetime. It is referred to as active immunization. There are also the passive immunizations that are usually a measure to safeguard us from immense and short-term danger and are short lived. These are the passive immunizations. However, their differences and interactions with the body are far more reaching than this.

Origin of the antibodies

One of the greatest differences between the active and passive immunity is the origin antibodies. As a result of the pathogens or infections that are injected into the body inform of a vaccine, the body produces its antibodies. Because of this, the antibodies are not new to the body.

However, the same cannot be said for the case of passive immunization. In this case, the antibodies are produced in other organisms and injected into the body as a vaccine or an anti-venom. Because the body is not actively involved in the production of the antibodies, this is referred to as passive immunity.

Side effects

Active Immunizations do not come with any side effects. They can take place in the body for a long time without any reactions. This is because the antibodies are part and parcel of the body and hence do not face any opposition. But because the antibodies that are used in passive immunization are usually foreign, they can tend to come with a variety of side effects. However, it is important to note that this may vary both in nature and intensity from person to person.

Time lapse

In most instances, the active immunizations are performed long before they are needed. To allow for a sufficient amount of time to pass before such vaccines can be effective. Once they have achieved that status, they are able to stay active and formidable in the body for extended periods. On the other hand, the passive immunizations offer immediate relief but their effects are only short lived even though these are felt. The passive vaccines are only administered after a disease-causing organism or venom has been detected in the body. As such they are considered more of a curative measure while the active one is regarded as a preventative option.


Both methods of immunity can be acquired through natural and artificial means. However, the difference int this case lies in the channels that are used for each type. For the case of passive immunity, it can be passed naturally from mother to child through the placenta while the fetus is developing and can also be passed while breastfeeding. Artificially, passive immunity can only be administered by an injection.

Naturally active immunity is acquired through antigens that enter the body inducing it to produce antibodies. Artificially, this is done by injecting antigens in vaccines.

It is important to keep in mind that even though the passive Vs active immunization might be quite different, they are quite critical to one’s survival. They can both be present in the body at the same time even though as stated earlier, passive methods are only short lived.

The Difference between Cancer Cells and Normal Body Cells

Posted by on Sep 7, 2015 in Cancer Cells vs Normal Body Cells | 0 comments

The Difference between Cancer Cells and Normal Body Cells.

Cancer is a word that too many brings the worst nightmares to reality. At the diagnosis of a cancerous tumor, many have confessed that the first thing that comes to their mind is that they will die. However, there is some success that is quite a good thing but this has not done much to lift the curtain of doubt that surrounds. The biggest question that surrounds this topic has to be how different the cancer cells are from the regular body cells. It is more so because the cancer cells are a product of the body cells hence for those that are not professionals in the medical world, this could be a confusing topic. However, you might be able to find some very sort after answers here as well as some of the areas in which cancer cells differ from the normal body cells.

What is cancer?

Without using the many complicated medical terms, cancer is simply a collection of cells that form a tumor that behaves without any regard to the ability of the body or the welfare of the surrounding organs. However, not all tumors are cancerous which puts even more emphasis on the need for one to know the difference between cells that are normal and those which are cancerous.


One of the easiest ways to distinguish cancer cells from the healthy ones is through their structure. Ideally, healthy body cells have chromosomes and genes that function normally and their division, and multiplication process is more organized and control. However, the same cannot be said for the cancerous cells. They divide and multiply haphazardly without control with the excess cells forming what is called a malignant tumor. They also have an aberrant gene and DNA structure and usually have an abnormal number of chromosomes.

Other structural differences that are characteristic of cancer cells include having a larger and variable shaped nuclei that occupies most space with the cell wall resulting in a smaller cytoplasmic volume.

Should the cancerous cells affect specialized cells, there is loss of the specialized features of that cell with other characteristics of the difference between healthy cells and cancer cells being the disorganized arrangement of cells and the tumor boundary that is poorly defined in such cells.

Blood vessels

For a normal body cell to survive, it ought to have a built-in blood vessel system to support its functions and provide nutrition. Cancer cells lack such a system but require more amino acids to facilitate their rapid growth.


Another area where cancer cells exhibit significant difference from the normal cells is how the former grows. They portray an aggressive and overactive growth process and tend to overproduce themselves compared to the normal cells that operate at an average metabolic level and grow at a more regulated pace.


Seeing the difference that each of the cell groups possesses, it is expected that each of them should have quite unique methods to fuel their growth processes. On one hand, the normal cells are able to get 70% of their energy from the Krebs cycle. However, the cancer cells are able to get minimal energy and in some instances none at all because it is defective in these cells.

To fuel their exponential growth, the cancer cells get their energy from the process of glycolysis which is only responsible for about 20% of the energy used by normal cells. The difference between normal cells and cancer cells in relation to energy production between the two cells does not stop there. Body cells get their energy from the use of oxygen, but the cancer cells are able to produce energy even without oxygen.

It is also worth noting that cancer cells are able to spread and every time they do this, the carry the properties of the original cancer cell. Even worse is their ability to trick the immune system and hence they are able to flourish without the immune system detecting them.